30 November 2010

update from Court ;)

Hi Dad!
This is pretty cool we have this to communicate with everyone on! pray for no more rain for us and for snow there lol i think a lot of us are enjoying the 60 degree weather here but looking forward to some snow when we get back into the states! heading to the Vatican tomorrow! Theres a 6 hour time difference, not 5 like i originally told you all, sorry about the confusion :) Love you all!

Rainy day in Rome

We have arrived, and it is raining. That didn't stop us, however. We visited Santa Pudenza, Santa Maria Maggiore, The Colosseum, Palatine Hill, Roman Forum, and walked all up Via Nazionale back to our hotel, all in the soaking rain. The trip from the airport was a bit of an adventure, but we experience Rome rush hour, and we all arrived safe and sound. Pictures and more tales to follow!

29 November 2010


We're about to board for Rome

The flight from Columbus to Philadelphia was swift and smooth and we're now sitting at our gate in Philadelphia, waiting for our group to be called to board our flight to Rome! Look for updates in 24 hours or so, as it'll be a while before I can find some internet access in Roma.

Ciao a tutti!

Visiting Venice in the Winter

Here's a story from Sunday's NYTimes Travel section about the joys of visiting Venice in the winter.

I'm not familiar with Joseph Brodsky's "Watermark", the book-length poem the author of this article refers to, but I'm looking to pick up a copy when we're there!

27 November 2010

Follow us here on our trip

Well, we all depart in two days, and amid watching football, finishing leftovers, I'm sure we are all busy packing for our Italian adventure. You can follow us here on the blog, as we'll be posting updates as we wind our way through Rome, Assisi, Florence, Venice, Padua and some of the surrounding countryside. Feel free to leave comments if you wish and happy holidays to all!

20 November 2010

British art restorer uncovers a lost Giotto masterpiece

Dr Johnson sent this article around a few weeks back. Here's a link to it. Maybe we'll get a chance to see this Giotto crucifix in Florence!


New Cardinals Installed at St Peter's

This video, about the installation of 24 new cardinals by Pope Benedict, features some excellent video of the interior of St. Peter's Basillica.


17 November 2010

Fra Angelico's Annunciation Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

*Academic Search Complete. Fra Angelico. Retrieved November 2, 2010 Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition.

In this source it gives a short abstract overview of the painter Fra Angelico. Simple and short it describes who he was, mentioning his artistic style and who he was influenced by. It describes in brief the transition Angelico experienced through his lifetime. This was one of the first readings I read about Fra Angelico, so it was a good starting point of what I would be learning as I wrote this paper, but did not have enough information needed.

*Dictionary of Art Online. Fra Angelico. Retrieved Novemeber 2, 2010 http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/getResults.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.34

In this source it gives an in-depth look into the background information of Fra Angelico. Along with an in-depth look into each piece of art Angelico created. In the source it also describes the location of Fra Angelico throughout his lifetime and where he created his works. The source also breaks down Angelico’s techniques he used and how he’s techniques used to create his works of art changed with time. Specifically this source goes into the description of the Annunciation. The source was an excellent resource for my paper and was very detail specific.

*Encyclopedia of World Biography. Fra Angelico. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.notablebiographies.com/An-Ba/Angelico-Fra.html

In the biography of Fra Angelico it talked about the early years of Angelico as he was preparing to take his vows to become a monk in the Order of Domincan Preachers with his brother. This article talks about the beginning stages of how his talent got started. Later in the source it mentions the projects Angelico worked on throughout his life. Lastly the biography proceeds with a small description of Angelico’s later years before his passing.

*The Museums of Florence. The Convent of Saint Marco. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.museumsinflorence.com/musei/museum_of_san_marco.html.

This website describes what artwork is in The Convent of Saint Marco, where one of the Annunciation’s is displayed. Along with list the numerous artists showcased with their works. The main website page gives a list of museums in Florence and gives an overview of the history and specific art displays housed in each museum. I thought that this website was really helpful, especially if you want to research information on other museums in Florence. It would be particularly helpful to a traveler coming through Florence because along with the historic art information, it also gives information on the landscape surrounding Florence.

*Tracking the Entire World. Fra Angelico. Retrieved November 5, 2010. http://www.nndb.com/people/692/000084440/.

On this website it gave more personal information about who Fra Angelico was and how he represented himself. I had not found an article or source that really described Fra Angelico besides being a religious man. So I found it interesting to learn more about who he was as a person and not just an artist. Along with the source gave a descriptive overview of Angelico from his life and works of art.

Vitruvian Man Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Atalay, Bulent. Math and the Mona Lisa: the art and science of Leonardo da Vinci. Washington: Smithsonian, 2004.

This book was written about the connections between math, science and art. It takes a closer look at the math and science that lies beneath Leonardo’s art work. It examines the proportions, symmetries, patterns and shapes that are evident in Leonardo’s masterpieces and how there is a strong connection in that to science and nature. This book was very interesting and provided a more uncommon but fascinating view of the examination of Leonardo’s works. It uses Leonardo da Vinci as a model for the perspective that science is significantly influenced by art and art by science.

Kemp, Martin. Leonardo. New York: Oxford University Press Inc, 2004.

This book takes an in depth look into Leonardo’s life. It describes in detail Leonardo’s childhood and adolescence, and examines some of the events that occurred to him that led to the beginning of his career as an artist. Throughout the rest of the book, Kemp explores Leonardo’s interests, ideas, writings, drawings and other works of art. Kemp breaks down Leonardo’s unique life and offers the reader a captivating look into the mind of one of history’s most innovative thinkers. This book was very helpful in gaining an understanding and appreciation of the many accomplishments of Leonardo da Vinci.

Phillips, Cynthia and Shana Priwer. The Everything Da Vinci Book: Explore the life and times of the ultimate Renaissance man. Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2006.

This book is a chapter by chapter breakdown of Leonardo’s life. It starts out with the early days of his childhood and moves into his life throughout the Renaissance. The chapters are then broken down into all of his different interests and areas of expertise, including paintings, drawings, sculptures, science, architecture, inventions and other accomplishments. This book offered insight into how well-rounded of a man Leonardo truly was, and was very helpful in understanding the complexity his life.

“Renaissance Man”. Museum of Science. Boston, MA: 2010. http://www.mos.org/leonardo/bio.html.

This website offered a good overview of information, and was a useful starting point for the more in depth research that other four sources had to offer.

Teisch, Jessica with Tracy Barr. Da Vinci For Dummies. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing Inc, 2005.

This book is a great tool and starting reference for gaining information about Leonardo da Vinci. It gives specifics about his life and tries to explain his works of art as well as other accomplishments he made throughout his life. This book was particularly useful when researching and trying to understand Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man. It also listed places to find Leonardo’s original works of art as well as listing other sources of where one can find more information on Leonardo da Vinci.

14 November 2010

Annotated Bibliography


"Art History at Loggia Primavera, by the Artist Sandro Botticelli." Loggia Exploring the Arts and Humanities! Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
The Loggia website provides a description of the Primavera and it includes links to pages with information about each character where you can learn the significance of each one. This was a good source because you could learn more about each of the characters in the painting.

"Botticelli's Primavera." Culture Guide. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
The Culture Guide provides a description and analysis of the Primavera by Botticelli. The analysis at this website is well thought out and provides ideas that other sources do not.

Lightbown, Ronald. Sandro Botticelli: Life and Work. New York: Abbeville, 1989. Print.
Lightbown's book is an in-depth biography of Botticelli's life and includes detailed information and close ups on many of his famous works. This was a great source because there were many close-ups provided of the Primavera, so I could get an in-depth view of all the different areas in the piece.

"Paintings by Sandro Botticelli." World History by History Link 101. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
When this website was created, it was intended as a resource for history teachers. This website provides information on Botticelli's Primavera that is very insightful that I did not read in other sources, but there is not as much information as I would have liked to see.

"Sandro Botticelli - Biography and Gallery of Art." Life of an Artist - Biographies and Galleries. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
This website had a biography of Botticelli including information on several of this works and a photo gallery. The biography was focused on the order of the works that were created as opposed to the artist’s personality and events in his life.

"World Art Treasures: Sandro Botticelli." J.-E Berger Foundation: World Art Treasures. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
The Berger foundation includes a comparison of the content and ideas of Botticelli's Birth of Venus and his Primavera. This was an interesting source because I could see an extension of the work that I am studying in his other painting.

Lilian, Zirpolo. "Botticelli's "Primavera": A Lesson for the Bride." Woman's Art Journal 12.2 (1991): 24-28. Print.
Zirpolo's article contains an in-depth discussion of Botticelli's Primavera and its original purposes when it was created, which was to show a new bride how she is supposed to behave. This article is very interesting because istead of just discussing the basic meaning of the work, it discusses why it was created in the first place.

11 November 2010

Questions for A Room with a View

As you read E. M. Forster's A Room with a View, it would be helpful to think about the following questions. We will deal with these questions, and related themes, in our class discussion of the book.
  • What do we see in the novel about why people travel? About what the benefit of travel is? What the challenges of travel are?
  • What is the role of the chaperone when it comes to travel? Why must Lucy have a chaperone? What is the task of the chaperone? Is Charlotte a good chaperone?
  • How does travel affect the characters in the novel? Clearly Lucy is the chief character affected by travel, but think of how the other characters--both those who travel and those who don't travel--are affected by the traveling.
  • In what ways do the travelers bring their experiences back home with them?
  • What does Italy represent in this novel? Why is the travel that happens in the novel travel to Italy? Does it represent different things in different parts of the novel?

There are some passages that warrant further thought. Here are some to think about (in no particular order):

  • The last two paragraphs of Chapter 17
  • "'Life,' wrote a friend of mine, 'is a public performance on the violin, in which you must learn the instrument as you go along.'" (Mr. Emerson talking to Lucy in Chapter 19)
  • The second and third paragraphs of Chapter 10
  • The paragraph a couple pages into Chapter 6 that begins, "Oh indeed," said Mr. Eager.... and the next paragraph or two after that. What is being said here about tourists?
  • "The true Italy is only to be found by patient observation" (Miss Lavish to Lucy, Chapter 2), and then a little later on: "One doesn't come to Italy for niceness...one comes for life."

Think about these passages, and whether they prompt some response or thoughts. Come up with your own favorite passages as well.

10 November 2010

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Cooperativa IL SOGNO. Trevi Fountain. Rome Guide. Available at
http://www.romeguide.it /MONUM/STORICI/trevi/trevi.htm

This source provides a clear cut, basic information on the Trevi Fountain and its history. The information is separated quite well to provide for finding information easily and is also placed chronologically. It had a lot of interesting information and and some great facts about the fountain that no other sites had. It also provided a plethora of pictures for references.

Fontana di Trevi Review. Real Travel Inc. 15 June 2006 Available at

This is one of the few sources that actually tells what the two bas-relief sculptures depict. Though most of the information is correct it is another review of when someone was in Rome.

Jessica. The Trevi Fountain: History and Legend. Why Go: Italy, 8 January 2009.
Available at http://www.italylogue.com/things-to-do/trevi-fountain-history-

At first look through this seems like a great source. It has great pictures and a lot of information that is well laid out. Though it seems like a good source there are little to no references and a lot of the information was incorrect or not consistent with other sources. If you are looking for some good propaganda for why you should go visit Rome or the Trevi Fountain then this is a great site but not all that scholarly.

Life of Niccolo Salvi. Lib Art. Available at http://www.lib-art.com/artgallery/1165-

There was not much information on Niccolo Salvi on this webpage but it gave me the basics. It was also one of the few sites with information about Niccolo that did not call him Nicola. It really had no information but it did have a few pictures of the fountain.
"Nicola Salvi." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 07 Nov.
2010 .

There was not much information on the life of Nicola Salvi online and this is the only source that had much substance at all. It was a great resource for the basics but when I tried to look at the rest of the article I was unable to. It also had a works cited for the site in MLA and APA format which to me meant that it was used as a resource quite often.

Trevi Fountain. “A view on cities”, available at: http://www.aviewoncities.com/rome/

This site was a great source of information and provided it in great detail. It had pictures that went along with what the article was talking about. The information was very helpful and was straight and to the point. It also had a lot of explanation about what is being depicted on the fountain which was hard to find in other sources. Over all analysis: great source.
Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi). Rome.info Available at http://www.rome.info/sights/ trevi-fountain/
Like many of the other sources this site provided little information but the information that it does have is helpful. It also has few pictures but does give a good brief overview of the fountain.

Trevi Fountain, Rome. Italy Heaven. Available at http://www.italyheaven.co.uk/rome

This is a nice first hand account about the Trevi Fountain and the information here is concurrent with other information I have found. There is not much information here but what is here is helpful. There are not many pictures to go along with the information though.

The Trevi Fountain. Gardin Fountains, 2007. Available at http://www.garden-

This source was a pretty good source of information. It provided a lot of information about how the fountain came in to being and also about its measurements. Other than that it had little information.

The Resourceful Site on the Trevi Fountain in Roma. Trevifountain.net, 2010 Available at http://www.trevifountain.net/description2.htm
This is an extremely helpful site that actually describes all of what is on the Trevi Fountain and explains how is all comes together. This is the absolute best source I found and it explains not only what is on the façade but also what it all means and what the buildings around are.
Trevi Fountain: History and Legend. Tor Vergata, 2002-2009. Available at

Like one of the other sources at first this site seemed like a great source and it turned out not to be. It provided some good information but the site is in another language except for the article so I am not sure how credible the site really is.

Here is the site about all the other fountains:

Fountains of rome

09 November 2010

"Lorenzo de’ Medici." 2010. Biography.com. 7 Nov 2010, 09:02 .
This source gives a good description of Lorenzo de’ Medici’s lifestlyle. It discusses his love for the arts and his popularity. It does not however discuss much about his wife and children or how he came to be in power. Without outside knowledge I would not have had an understanding of the importance of the Medici name in Florence at the time. There is also a quick summary of the Pazzi conspiracy that does not go into detail. There is no author to this source which may decrease its credibility, however it is from a reliable site with biographies of many important people.
Horth, Susan. The Magnificent Medici. PBS. WOSU, Columbus, OH, 02 Nov. 2004. Television.
I gained the majority of my information from this program. This was aired on PBS and discussed Lorenzo de’ Medici’s entire reign over Florence. The program did a great job of describing his influence over the culture of the city and the enemies he made in the process. I gained a better understanding of the Pazzi conspiracy and its effect on the country. This also discussed Savonarola and the difference in opinion between the two. It ended by discussing the rapid change in Florence after Lorenzo’s death and the beginning of Savonarola’s role. The program came from a reliable source since PBS produces many historical documentaries to accurately portray the subject matter.
“Lorenzo De' Medici." Renaissance Art, Artists, and Society. 2007. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
This site provided evidence of Lorenzo de’ Medici’s humanism. It discusses his education before coming into power. Also his attitude towards art and life in general is discussed and allows you to infer his humanistic beliefs. I am unsure as to the reliability of this site. There is no author and it is a site dedicated to the Renaissance time period.
"Lorenzo De Medici - Definition." Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - WordIQ Dictionary. 2010. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .
This is another short biography of Lorenzo de’ Medici. It gives quick descriptions of his life and his claim to power and popularity. This website did not describe the Pazzi conspiracy, however it gave information about the effects of the conspiracy and Lorenzo’s need for powerful allies. The website has no author and again there is no evidence of its reliability aside from the fact that much of the information is the same as previous sources.

08 November 2010

Annotated bibliography-Kailee Miller-San Miniato

1) Aitelli, Glenn, and Jeanne Aitelli. "San Miniato." Travel-To-Florence.com. Glenn Aitelli, 2009. Web. 7 Nov 2010.


This website gives a brief, yet detailed summary of the history of the San Miniato. This website provides great descriptions about the inside of the church. There are also pictures on this website for the viewer to see. It is a great source for someone us without becoming too overwhelmed.

2) Facaros, Dana, and Michael Pauls. Tuscany. New Holland Publishers, 2006. 174-177. Print.

This book has a few pages in it that not only gives a history of the San Miniato, but also an overview of the different artworks that lie within the church. This would be a great source to start with, and then research further if one would like more information. Pictures are also provided of the church and of a few of the different artworks.

3) Hidden Italy, . "San Miniato al Monte." Hidden Italy 1997: Web. 6 Nov 2010. <http://www.museumsinflorence.com/musei/san_miniato.html>.

This website provides a source of information about the church of San Miniato. Pictures are provided with descriptions under each one. Enough information is given on this site that the reader would have an understanding of how the church was built and for whom.

Horn, Walter. "Romanesque Churches in Florence: A study in their chronology and stylistic development." Art Bulletin 25.2 (1943): 112-131. Web. 1 Nov 2010. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3046874>.

This journal article goes into depth about the construction of the church and the style that

was used for it. This is a great resource for someone interested in the Romanesque style

of architecture in particular. This article discusses how the researchers discovered the

layout of the church and the order that it was constructed in. The researchers discovered

these findings by examining the architecture and particular areas of it, since these were


5) Howard, Saalaman. "Paolo Uccello at San Miniato." Burlington Magazine, Ltd. 106.741 (1964): 558-563. Web. 5 Nov 2010. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/874506>.

This article discusses the fresco paintings that were discovered in the cloister of San Miniato. These frescos were created by Paolo Uccello. Details are discussed about when the frescos were created and the significance that they played with the San Miniato.

6) Mack, Charles. "The Building Programme of the Cloister of San Miniato." Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd. 115.844 (1973): 447-448+450-452. Web. 6 Nov 2010. <http://www.jstor.org/pss/877356>.

This article supplies the reader with information about the uprising of the San Miniato al Monte, who it was created for, the design, and the architecture itself. Charles Mack found this information through his own personal research and by studying older articles and pieces left behind. Although this article is brief, it still gives a good insight into the basis of the church. Charles Mack does not go into as much detail about the frescos that are in the church, which may be of interest to someone going to see this church. Pictures are provided of the church.

7) Paoletti, John, and Gary Radke. Art in Renaissance Italy. 3rd. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. 2005, 2005. 170. Print.

This book is not entirely about the San Miniato, but on page 170 it does provide

information about some of the frescos in it. It provides the reader also with pictures of

some of the frescos that are within the church walls. This page is a great reference source,

and is easy to follow.

8) "Romanesque architecture." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 08 Nov. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1384996/Romanesque-architecture>.

By viewing this information in the Encyclopedia Britannica about Romanesque art and

architecture one will receive an informative overview of what this style of architecture

consisted of. This article provides dates and descriptions of this ancient style of work that

are easy for the reader to follow and understand.

Annotated Bibliography - Etruscan Sarcophagus Larthia Seianti

Steingraeber, Stephen, "Investing In The Afterlife," Dig 6, no. 3, (March 2004), 6.

The article highlights the importance Etruscans placed on death and the subsequent afterlife. They crafted elaborate tombs that reflected their value of honoring the dead. Sites were built at the tomb for family and friends to pay homage to the deceased; these were specifically in the way of elevated platforms. Corridors usually lead into the main chamber of the tomb, and along the way walls were decorated with architectural detail consisting of features like windows and columns. In the chamber the deceased were placed on stone beds or in wooden sarcophagi. This is where the investment can be seen. All around the tomb rich burial gifts were placed. These included things such as vases, weapons, and jewelry. Tomb art reflected Greek influence and style, but the custom of decorating the tomb was an Etruscan concept. Wall scenes depicted mostly humans and animals, and they provided information about daily living, sports, banquets, and social customs.

Merola, Marco. "Unearthing The Tomb of The Badger." Archaeology 61, no. 5 (September 2008), 27-29.

This essay is on the recent discovery of a new Etruscan tomb. The tomb has been determined to be one of the largest gravesites from the era. Despite this being at the end of the Etruscan era and the beginning on the Roman, the burial still has all the markings and customs of traditional Etruscan sentiment. Etruscan tombs were noteworthy for their valuables, and many of them remained in place here. Vases, bronze mirrors, and sarcophagi make up the largest portion.

"Etruscan civilization." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (July 2010): 1.

This entry was the most in-depth look at Etruscan lifestyle. It covered the history of the civilization from it's earliest roots of Asia Minor to the dominance of Rome that befell it. There is great consideration for social-political structure and also valuable information about military life. Religion, art, and architecture comprise the majority of the article. Through art, specifically burial sites, we have come to learn a great deal about Etruscan religion and values. Art was mostly in the forms of wall paintings and sculptures. The purpose was not intrinsic, as much of it details history and seems to honor their gods and goddesses. There is a great influence of Greek style in the art, but Etruscan art had a significant influence on early Roman art, too.

Warden, P. Gregory. "Etruscan Treasures From The Temple And The Tomb,” Veranda 23, no. 3 (April 2009), 44.

This essay is similar to the "Investing" article. It focuses on the immense wealth that Etruscans accumulated, and their desire to take it with them. They had faith in a material afterlife, no doubt. The tombs were adorned with bronze, silver, and rare gold techniques. Their mastery for metalwork is evident as well. The essay does note a slight shift in themes from the beginning of Etruscan civilization to the end. In earlier centuries tombs displayed paintings focused on lively and cheerful events. Later paintings, however, were more focused on death and the afterlife. This shift could be the result of struggles and slow growth as the region was being dominated by the advancing Roman civilization.

Bernard, Nancy Stone, “The Mysterious Etruscans,” Dig 6, no. 3 (March 2004), 6.

This article is a short one-page essay on how we can use artifacts from Etruscan life to tell us about their world and culture. Bernard talks about the importance of writings and inscriptions, along with artifacts like urns, helmets, and jewelry. It relates to the “Investing” essay because it continues with the theme of the afterlife and superstition.

“Etruscan Art,” from Hunt For (2007), retrieved 7 November 2010 from

This website is a quick overview of Etruscan art, it’s different uses, and the significance of it over time. It details many of the same points and facts as the other essays. It was especially useful because it has many images of Etruscan artwork, and it also offers links to other Etruscan related information.

“The Sarcophaugs of Larthia Seianti”, from Popoli Antichi (2003), retrieved 7 November 2010 from

This is the most in-depth analysis of Larthia Seianti that I was able to find. It is originally an Italian article, so it had to be translated. It thoroughly discusses the body position, colors, and portrait of the female subject. It references the mild-manner face of the subject, and how it relates to the shift in burial theme from early to later centuries. It also gives a description of her garments, the moldings on the sarcophagus, and the significance of the other artifacts that were found in the tomb. Overall, this was probably the most helpful in analyzing Larthia Seianti.

annotated bibliography


Dennis, M., Nangle, O. J., Moe-Lobeda, C., & Taylor, S. (1993). St. Francis and the Foolishness of God. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

St. Francis and the Foolishness of God is a biography of St. Francis of Assisi. The authors have tried to imitate Francis on his walk of life, with each chapter pertaining to his beliefs about a particular subject, such as community or suffering. The book was helpful when I was researching Francis’ beliefs about creation. It provided details and quotes in relation not only to his adult life after he became a monk, but also provided a glimpse of his childhood. This source is biased only in the fact that the authors are Catholics who wish to bring their readers closer to God. For this reason, their writing may not be strictly objective.

Francis of Assisi. (2010, 11 04). Retrieved 11 05, 2010, from Wikipedia: HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_of_Assisi" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_of_Assisi

Wikipedia provided a good starting point. Giving a brief summary, this site provided much of St. Francis’ biographical information. The goal of Wikipedia was to give a brief overview of who St. Francis was, and his important contributions. The information was straight-forward facts so it was non-biased. This source was a helpful starting point in my research. I was able to get an idea of where to go next, based on his major contributions.

Irvine, W. B. (2009). A Guide to the Good Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

This book did not provide me with information about St. Francis himself, but is sited in my paper because Seneca’s ideas which are explained in A Guide to the Good Life, parallel St. Francis’ in some ways. The novel is written by a present day author, who outlines the principles of stoicism. Irvine is a stoic, so the novel is not purely objective, but biased in favor of stoicism. Irvine’s ideas about the luxuries of life are similar to those of St. Francis’, so the book was helpful in assisting me in making those comparisons.

Nations, U. (2010, 11 08). UNESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 11 08, 2010, from Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco: HYPERLINK "http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/990" http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/990

The World Heritage website lists and explains each of the world heritage sites, separated by country. It also includes qualifications for becoming a world heritage site. The Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi is a designated World Heritage Site and is listed on the website. Therefore, the site was helpful for me to collect information regarding the site. It is non-biased and was a helpful source that provided me with information regarding a place we will actually see in Assisi.

Robinson, t. b. (1905). Sacred-texts. Retrieved 11 05, 2010, from The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi: HYPERLINK "http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/wosf/index.htm" http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/wosf/index.htm

This website is actually a book that was translated in 1905. It was put on the web and includes St. Francis’ actual works. The site is broken down into parts that progress from rules, to letters, to prayers of St. Francis. This source was the most helpful when I was conducting research because it contained so much of St. Francis’ actual writings. I was able to read what Francis actually wrote rather than a biography. The information I got here was also the most accurate because it did come straight from St. Francis, assuming that the translator did so correctly.

Spoto, D. (2002). Reluctant Saint: The Life of Francis of Assisi. New York, NY: Penguin Group.

This source was another biography written about St. Francis of Assisi. The book was organized by time period, with each chapter depicting a range of years in Francis’ life. From this source, I was able to obtain information that supplemented some of my main points in my paper. This book tried to capture not only events in Francis’ life, but also his personality and character. Because of this, I felt like I “knew” St. Francis better than simply reading facts about him, or works that he had written.

Annotative Bibliography

Asiado, Tel. Suite101. 28 September 2009. 5 Novmeber 2010 .
--This site contains a lot of information about Machiavelli including a short biography and the different roles he played as a diplomat and a political writer. Also, lists the books by Machiavelli. This was mainly describing what Machiavelli did as the Second Chancellor of the Republic of Florence.

Chew, Robin. Lucidcafe:Library. 2010. 2 November 2010 .
-There is the same basic information about the life of Machiavelli, but here is where you can find his view about using forces such as violence to gain power. Also, his basic roles during that time period. This is again just a breif summary about his life and does not go into depth.

Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. 5 November 2010 .
-This site contained Machiavelli and realism. Also, discusses the humanism a characteristic in Machiavelli’s work, but that was only one section on the site. The rest of the site does not say anything about Machiavelli.

New World Encyclopedia. 3 April 2008. 5 Novmeber 2010 .
-This was the second most helpful site because it did not just tell you where he was born or that he was simply just a political writer. There is information about his early life, diplomatic mission, and his history under the Medici family. It goes into depth about his works The Prince, The Discourses. There are also criticisms of his works and about his legacy.

Niccolo Machiavelli. 2009. 2 November 2010 .
- This website is very sort and has just basic information about the life of Machiavelli and his early political involvement. It is not that excited or contains a lot of information and would be used for just a very short summary about Machiavelli's reputation involving his works.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 September 2009. 5 November 2010 .
-Most helpful site for information about Machiavelli. There is a complete biography about him along with the relationship between him and the Medici family. There is a analysis of The Prince and the concept of power explaining the entire purpose of that work. The meaning of virtue and fortune according to Machiavelli and his views on morality, religion, and politics are included. Then there is a section relating the concepts of the state and The Prince. There is a interpretation of The Discourses on liberty and conflict. The rest of the site gives more views about the government and right of people related to security. Also, characterizing a republican leader based on Machiavelli's philosophy.

Annotated Bibliography

Avery, C., & Finn, D. (1997). Bernini: genius of the Baroque, (pp. 144-149). Canada: Little, Brown & Company.

This book gives an excellent description of the Cornaro chapel. It does tend to describe The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa and the scene surrounding in a theatrical way, which tends to be up for debate with critics. It provides us with great descriptions of what Bernini had in mind when constructing the sculpture and even provides pictures of his sketches. It gives great descriptions of the chapel, helping us to visualize what we will see and where it can be located upon entering. There is an excellent colored picture of the altar.

Call, M. J. (1997). Boxing Teresa: The Counter-Reformation and Bernini’s Cornaro Chapel. Woman’s Art Journal, 18, 34-39.

This article focused more on the Cardinal Cornaro and why he chose St. Teresa for his chapel. It also provided a detailed description of what the sculpture looks like. It tries to describe it, as well as give reasoning for why it looks the way it does, which is helpful. By providing facts and information for why certain things are placed where they are in the scene, it gives me a better understanding for what Bernini’s goals were in creating this sculpture.

Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art. Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Biography of Italian Baroque Sculptor & Architect. Retrieved November 4, 2010 from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/sculpture/bernini-giovanni.htm

This website was probably not the most reliable source to use, but it did have information that matched up with my books and articles. It had a few different sections that included Bernini’s biography, a summary of his life and his works, and a section of the Baroque period. It tended to repeat a lot of the same information over and over again though. I used this website for a better understanding of his life and how he got to become the great artist that he did.

Lubow, A. (2008, October). Bernini’s Genius. Smithsonian magazine. Retrieved November 4, 2010 from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/berninigenius.html?c=y&page=1

This magazine article, found on a website, provided a large amount of information on Bernini’s life and his development into becoming the well-known artist. It gave explanations of his great work ethic and described his long, lifetime career. It gave me honest explanations of the artist as well though, explaining how he did really want to be famous and create a legacy. It explained his integrity as an artist, as well as a great man in general. It didn’t really provide much information on the actual sculpture of The Ecstasy of St. Teresa though.

Wallace, R. (1970). The world of Bernini, (pp. 11, 153). New York: Time-Life Books.

This book gave a discrete explanation of the sculpture of The Ecstasy of St. Teresa. It also provided a large, zoomed in picture of the angel and the Saint, so you could see more detail. It has a great description of what the Baroque style really entails. I mainly used this book to form a better understanding of the Baroque art in which Bernini was known for.

Warma, S. (1984, September). Ecstasy and Vision: Two Concepts Connected with Bernini’s Teresa. The Art Bulletin, 66, 508-511.

This article provided an extremely detailed description of The Ecstasy of St. Teresa. It also provided an extensive amount of excerpts from St. Teresa’s Autobiography detailing her many characteristics of experiencing ecstasy. The article provided the very detailed description of what the whole basis of sculpture is about, her ecstatic experience with God. It gave great comparisons of what St. Teresa explains as ecstasy to how Bernini tried to portray it in his sculpture.

Wittkower, R. Bernini: the sculptor of the Roman Baroque, (pp. 158-173). Regent’s Wharf: Phaidon Press Limited.

This book provided a detailed description of many chapels and churches of the Baroque period. It definitely favors the Cornaro Chapel and compares it with other ones of that time. It does give a quick description of The Ecstasy of St. Teresa, but doesn’t go into quite as much detail as other sources. It does go into great detail about the chapel itself, and just slightly includes The Ecstasy of St. Teresa as a sort of ornamentation. It does have excellent pictures, though they are in black and white. It includes pictures of the sculpture itself, as well as an up-close picture of the angel, the Saint, the side viewing spectator boxes, and even the spectators themselves.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography
Carr-Gomm, Sarah. Hidden Symbols in Art. New York: Rizzoli, 2001. Print.

This book is an easy-to-guide to the mythological, religious, historic, literary, and symbolic traditions which have inspired artists. This book also gives essential information on the characters, both real and imagined, whose lives and stories inspired centuries of artists-from Apollo, Zeus, and their fellow Olympian gods and goddesses to Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, the apostles, and the saints. It also includes fascinating feature panels, illustrated with details from great works of art, explaining how to interpret a wide range of artistic themes, from the nine Muses to the Seven Deadly Sins.

Cuzin, Jean Pierre., and Raphael. Raphael: His Life and Works. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell, 1985. Print.

Is basically a biography of Raphael. It discusses Raphael’s childhood and education. It also talks about all of his art that he has drawn with also sketched of his earlier work.

Johnson, Geraldine A.. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005. Print.

The volume provides a broad cultural and historical context for some of the Renaissance's most famous artists and works of art. It also explores forgotten aspects of Renaissance art, such as objects made for the home and women as artists and patrons. Rather than focusing on just one region, the book introduces readers to a variety of approaches to the study of Renaissance art.

Meyer-Baer, Musical Iconography in Raphael's Parnassus. "Musical Iconography in Raphael's Parnassus." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 8.2 (1949): 87-96. Web. 5 Nov. 2010. .

Talks about Raphael and the paintings that he does in the Vatican. She talks specifically about Mount Parnassus.

Raphael, and John Wyndham Pope-Hennessy. The Raphael Cartoons;. London: H.M.S.O., 1950. Print.

The Raphael Cartoons are seven large cartoons for tapestries, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, painted by the High Renaissance in 1515-16. They are showing scenes from the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles. They are the only surviving members of a set of ten cartoons commissioned by Pope Leo X for tapestries for the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Palace.

Wolk-Simon, Linda. Raphael at the Metropolitan: the Colonna Altarpiece. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006. Print.

This book reunites the two main panels with all the scenes from its predella. Which is platform or alter. A select group of drawings and paintings by Raphael.

07 November 2010

Annodated Bibliography

Catholic Online. “St. Clare – Saints & Angels”. Christian.com. n.d. Web. 5 November 2010. <http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=215>.
            This site is a page for people of the Catholic faith. It contains local and global news, books, a prayers sections and a section that contains information about Saints and Angels. Once you go to the saint’s link, you go to saints index; there you can search alphabetically for the hundreds upon hundreds of Catholic saints. The page about St. Clare describes how she came to follow St. Francis. It also tells the story about how she prayed and saved her sisters and her city when a soldier threat surfaced. 

Church History. “Institutionalizing the Franciscan Order of St. Clare”. American Society of Church History. Cambridge University Press. Vol. 69, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 41-62. Web. 5 November 2010. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3170579>.
            This Journal was about the conflict between the Friars Minor and the Franciscan nuns, the confrontation last from 1261-63. There were three different parts to the journal; The Friars Minor and the Franciscan Nuns, Conflict, Aftermath: The Sisters’ Response. I address just the first and last parts as they include the most information about St. Clare and her role in the conflict. The conflict was focused on the level of care the friars were to provide the nuns and which type of rule the nuns lived under.

Hayes, Holly. Sacred Destinations. “Basilica di Santa Chiara, Assisi”. n.d. Web. 6 November 2010. <http://www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/assisi-santa-chiara>.
            This site contains links to popular, sacred religious destinations all over the world. The links are broken up alphabetically. So to find the Basilica of St. Clare you would click on Places (F-I), then (the country) Italy, then (the city) Assisi, then finally (the destination) Basilica di Santa Chiara. Here you find a bit of history about St. Clares life. Then a detailed description of the Church is included. It explains both how the church was built and more specifically what can see when visiting the church. There is also a Quick Facts section which provides helpful information such as the hours of visitation to the church.

Irvine, William B. A Guide to the Good Life. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
            This book by William Irvine touches on the principles and techniques of Stoic philosophy. The book goes through the history of the philosophical school that was started in ancient Rome and then moves on to show how we can use the techniques of Stoicism to live better lives today. Chapter 15 on Luxury and Irvine’s description of the Cynic lifestyle both relate to the ways of the Poor Clares.

James, Rebecca. Sister Freaks: Stories of Women Who Gave Up Everything for God. New York: Time Warner Book Company, 2005. Print.
            This book by Rebecca St. James is essentially a devotional book. It is divided up by weeks, with each week telling the story of a different women in history who gave up certain aspects of their lives for Christ. Each story is just a few pages long, with a passage from the Christian bible to connect the stories to the faith and ways of Jesus Christ. The story of St. Clare gave some background to her childhood. It mostly focused on her Order of Poor Clares, a group of women who gave up everything to become devote to God. The passage describes the duties of the Poor Clares, and some of St. Francis and St. Clares relationship.

Sisters of St. Clare. “St. Clare Biography”. Sisters of St Clare. 2009. Web. 6 November 2010.
            This website is the home site of the Organization Sisters of St. Clare. The organization started out as an order that St. Clare of Assisi started in the 1200’s. The site contains an “About Us” section; here you can get information about today’s current members. There are also a “Prayer Request” and “Ways to Give” links. In order to get information about St. Clare I went to the “About Us” and then to Biography. When you go to the Biography of St. Clare it tells a bit about her childhood. It then goes on to tell how she came to know St. Francis, a preacher who she admired. Then it describes the history of the Order of St. Clare.

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. “Clare of Assisi”. 4 November 2010. Web. 5 November 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clare_of_Assisi>.
            In order to get basic information about St. Clare, the Wikipedia online Encyclopedia provides an outline of who St. Clare was, and what she did. The contents of the page include a Biography, a brief summary on what occurred after her death, and what her legacy consists of. The site also includes sections that suggest further reading and external links. The external links are very helpful because they provide you with reliable sources in which you can obtain information on St. Clare, or related topics.